Why are there spots on the Moon? How many living things are there in a teaspoon of soil? To provide some agreed-upon topics of conversation over Christmas, while hanging on to the next release of our paper review, here are four scientific anecdotes from four files in our journal.
Let’s face it: Not many of us will avoid traditional anti-science clichés at year-end family reunions. There always comes a time when the climate-skeptical uncle or the ax-opposing sister-in-law has the opportunity to initiate a remark that is likely to escalate and worsen into a heated debate.Yule log.
To avoid falling into such a vicious circle, we offer four backfires for lighting in an emergency. Sources of astonishing four scientific anecdotes, the astonishing expanse of knowledge and a primary consensus.On the Cake: These tales are taken from four of our files Which will be released in January. There’s a way for us to wait until then, and wish you a very happy holiday!
1. Why are there spots on the Moon?
We can admire them almost every night and some enjoy imagining their charactersDarkness. Many legends also see in its spots the outline of a celestial rabbit living on the moon. Chinese rover Yutu 2, the first human machine to walk In 2019, For this reason a name meaning “jade rabbit”. we have debt too Michael Florent van Langeren, author of one of the first lunar maps in 1645, denominated “sea” to designate these large craters, as it was thought that these dark spots indicated the existence of oceans on the Moon.
In fact, these dark areas reveal the presence of, they are the remains of ancient flows The giant craters that filled the largest lunar craters between 3.7 and 3.3 billion years ago. This lava came from inside the moon, which was extremely hot at that time. under the influence of , then tended to rise to the surface but failed to pierce Chandra compared it to places where it was thinnest: where impact craters thinned it. This is why these basalts, these spots, follow the rounded shape of these craters today. In a sense it was the ocean and the ocean… but the ocean of lava!
2. Our genes are a small part of our DNA
We use the two words interchangeably, yet ourprobably only … 2% , To be more precise, researchers now estimate the number of genes encoding approximately 20,000 inside Man. These are made up of sequences of genes with double helix structure of , But large portions of this long sequence of nucleotides (there are 3.2 billion nucleic bases in the human genome) do not encode any proteins: 90 to 98% of the whole, according to the researchers.
If these sequences were previously known as “junk DNA”, scientists are slowly exploring the fundamental role that these regions of the genome may play. Some, located next to genes and called promoters, are used to regulate their expression or have a role in epigenetic mechanisms. Another example, the sequences are identically repeated and are located at the end of, Called , serve to preserve Chromosomes. Telomeres shorten with each cell division, which plays a role in aging but also protects against , Other large groups of DNA fulfill a function still unknown to researchers, including Self.
3. How many living things are there in a teaspoon of soil?
It is a world in itself. a universe full ofRich, varied and connected by complex relationships like no other. One teaspoon (5 grams) of forest soil in our , we find up to 50 million thousands. owned by of various, thousands of species but still , , , , ciliates, viruses …
There is nothing accidental in this wealth; On the contrary, it is wealth that gives the earth its fertility, which creates the earth.and allows plants to feed, some living in symbiosis with their roots, providing them necessary for them In exchange for provided by plants. If you take a little more than a teaspoon, you will easily get slightly larger animals, and worms, true plowers of the soil. These beautiful people represent 50 to 75% 26% of the living and listed species on Earth. They play an important role in capturing carbon and in the adaptation of agricultural practices … on condition of a better understanding and respect of them.
Machine beats human brain by consuming 50,000 times more energy…
In 2016,Developed by DeepMind (acquired by two years ago) ) beats Korean Lee Sedol, one of the best players in the world, in the game of Go. The phenomenon caused a sensation as Go was until then considered one of the most difficult games for AI to emulate, the possible combinations being much greater than for example chess. But to beat its human rival, DeepMind’s algorithm deployed an enormous amount of energy, estimated at up to 1 megawatt, while … for 20 watts. , Or 50,000 times less.
Since this symbolic confrontation, engineers certainly haven’t stopped improving their AI’s performance and optimizing energy consumption. But it remains a major issue, especially during the learning phases of algorithms. In 2019, AI researchers () from the University of Massachusetts For example that the training of a single As much as CO. can emit2 that five throughout their life cycle. Next time you a. play against you get complicated , remember that your And its 86 billion neurons remain an unparalleled wonder of efficiency and learning capabilities.
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