Einstein’s theory became 500 times harder to overcome

Einstein's theory became 500 times harder to overcome

Einstein’s theory of general relativity predicted that space-time around the earth would be warped and twisted by the rotation of the planet. Huge objects distort space-time, which is perceived as gravity.

Despite the success, Einstein’s powerful hypothesis remains mathematically unchanged with quantum mechanics. It is important to examine general relativity because a certain theory of the universe must contain gravity and quantum mechanics.

A new theory is expected to differ from general relativity, but there are many ways to correct it. According to scientists, whatever the exact theory, in the case of black holes it cannot be significantly different from general relativity.

The theory has withstood more than 100 years of experimentation and testing, including new experiments from the Horizon Telescope collaboration.

Dimitrios Saltis, a professor of astrophysics in Arizona who was a project scientist in collaboration with the Event Horizon Telescope until recently, said: “We’ve hit the ground running for potential change.”

Keichi Asda, a member of the EHT Science Council and a black hole radio observation specialist at the Academia Sineca Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, said: “This is a brand new way to test general relativity using a supermassive black hole.”

Scientists performed the experiment using the first image taken from a supermassive black hole in the nearby galaxy M87. The first results showed that the shadow size of a black hole was consistent with the size predicted by general relativity.

Simulation of M87 blackhole
M87 is a simulation of a black hole that revolves around a black hole showing plasma motion. The bright thin ring we see in blue is what we call the shadow of the black hole of Credit: El Medioros; C Chan; De Saltis; F Özel; Urizona; IAS.

UArizona Steward Theory Fellow Pierre Christian says, “At that time we could not ask the opposite question: how can a theory of gravity differ from general relativity and still be consistent with the size of the shadow? We wondered if we could do anything with these observations to cut some of the options. “

Scientists have extensively analyzed many changes in the theory of general relativity. Their goal was to identify the unique feature of the theory of gravitation that determines the size of the shadow of a black hole.

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Thus scientists hoped to identify whether some alternative events of general relativity would agree with the Horizon telescope observation. They focused on the myriad of alternatives that have passed all previous tests of the solar system.

A senior member of the EHT collaboration, Faryal Ezel, a professor of astrophysics at Eurezona, said: “Using the gauge we have developed, we have shown that the measured size of the shadow of a black hole in M87 in the solar system makes the Wiggle room harder to change the general relativity theory, many ways to correct general relativity Failed. “

Images of different energies of gravitational fields tested by cosmic, solar-system and blackhole experiments
Images of different energies of gravitational fields tested by cosmic, solar-system and blackhole experiments Credit: De Saltis, Urizona; NASA / WMAAP; ESA / Cassini; EHT collaboration

Michael Kramer, director of the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy and EHT collaboration, said: “Blackhole images provide a whole new angle for testing Einstein’s theory of general relativity.”

Saltis says, “With gravitational-wave observation, it ushers in a new era in blackhole astronomy.”

Easel said, “Examining gravity theory is an ongoing quest: are general relativity predictions for different astronomical objects good enough for astronomers not to worry about any possible differences or changes in general relativity?”

“We always say that general relativity passed all the tests with flying colors – I have a dime for every time I hear it.”

“But when you do certain tests it is true, you do not see that the results deviate from the general relativity predictions. What we’re saying is that for the first time, we have a separate gauge that allows us to test a test that is 500 times better, and that gauge is the size of a black hole’s shadow.

Journal Reference:
  1. Dimitrios Saltis et al. Gravity experiments beyond the first post-Newtonian order, including the M87 black hole shadow, physical review paper (2020). DOI: 10.1103 / FizerVivelet
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