Wonder! a giant black hole that makes stars

Black holes are often thought of as cosmic ogres, destroyers of stars. And yet, observations made to the high resolution of the Hubble Space Telescope suggest that sometimes they can also give rise to stars in galaxies.

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[EN VID√ČO] Science-loving astronomer Stephen Hawking
Legendary physicist Stephen Hawking passed away on March 14, 2018. A true legend of physics, he was also a very talented popular figure. Take a look at the extraordinary life of this scientist who managed to make himself loved by the public and make his scientific research work accessible: black holes, superstring theory, Hawking radiation, theorem on singularity … Science says a big thank you to him Is.

Expected by Subramaniam Chandrasekhar and especially Robert Oppenheimer during the 1930s, black holes relativists (Laplace and Michel had already imagined them physique Newtonian) was not taken seriously for decades and it was not until the 1960s, with the discovery of Kaiser, he prefers visionary pioneers John Wheeler, Roger Penrose or definitely Stephen Hawking gave these objects letters of their nobility foreigner,

Soon, swallowing black holes became world-destroyers for the general public and science fiction fans. Stars or spacecraft. From astronomy, Like Jean Pierre Luminetta and Brandon Carter, in the early 1980s would also develop scenarios with helpful calculations showing how a star is passing very close to one supermassive black hole that we were beginning to discover at the heart of a large number of very large galaxies, which may be distorted tidal force, to the point of taking a pancake shape and then exploding. this is the event tidal disruption event (or TDE), which can be translated as “tidal break event”.

That’s why we are a little surprised by the announcement made by two astrophysicists Via an article published in nature and which is related to a irregular galaxy Name Heinz 2-10.

Black hole, destroyer and creator of stars. To get a fairly accurate French translation, click on the white rectangle at the bottom right. The English subtitle should then appear. Then click on the nut on the right side of the rectangle, then on “Subtitles” and finally click on “Translate automatically”. Select “French”. NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Streams of matter collapsing molecular clouds

Heinz 2-10 (its name is a tribute to Carl G. Heinz, a astronomer American who was Astronaut From NASA on the board of skylab and sadly died on Everest) a galaxy girl Located at a distance of about 34 million light years from Galaxy In planetarium of compass. Its diameter is only about 3,000 light-years, but it still has about a million . is a supermassive black hole public Solar. This is already surprising in itself because our galaxy, which is thirty times as large, contains a supermassive black hole of about 4.3 million solar masses.

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But the most surprising thing is that the observations made with Hubble clearly show that vents From matter 2-10 not only associated with open clusters of youth from Heinz’s central black hole Stars on their way, but that the stream of matter they constitute is a. joins like umbilical cord This black hole and a region, the site of febrile formation of stars, about 230 light-years from the compact star.

An analysis of the information provided by Hubble indicates that a flux of matter was emitted from the black hole a few million years ago and caused shock waves. clouds On the passage of this flow, the molecules collapsing And hence the formation of young stars.

Of course, powerful jets of matter from supermassive black holes have long been observed, but they are usually very hot and very energetic inside galaxies. Instead of collapsing clouds in their path, they heat up and expand, making it impossible for stars to form.

A quasar can form its own galaxy!

article of laurent sacco Published on 03/12/2009

It has long been suspected that galaxies and supermassive black holes grow together. New observations from the quasar HE0450-2958 suggest that a massive black hole may form the part of the galaxy that would hold it at its core. This scenario may be very commonuniverse,

after the nature of kerr black hole The spinning giant has been identified as the engine responsible for tremendous energy From Kaiser And active galactic nucleusA strange relationship was discovered by astrophysicists. The size of a central black hole is proportional to the size of its galaxy. A good way to account for this observation is to assume a co-genic link between supermassive black holes and galaxies.

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However, it was not clear who was at the origin of the other. A black hole requires matter to grow and one can imagine that a galaxy is accumulating in the center, eventually forming a black hole. on the contrary, gravitational force can attract a lot of matter around itself and one can imagine a cloud of gas swirling around a massive black hole and eventually forming a galaxy. In short, the problem is chicken and egg. However, some clues have suggested that the so-called intermediate-mass black holes may predate the first galaxies and function more or less as germs for the evolution of these primitive galaxies.

We also know that big galaxies are formed by? Fusion Dwarf Galaxies. Their black holes being destined to merge after a certain amount of time were, in all likelihood, at least in part, a way to explain the relationship between the mass of the galactic black hole and the mass of the Milky Way.

We also know that when a massive black hole ignites in a quasar, it emits a stream of particles and radiation that can influence and control the rate of star formation in the Milky Way.

However, we have known for some time about the quasar HE0450-2958, which is located at a distance of about 5 billion light-years from Earth. It didn’t seem to actually be located in a galaxy, even though the matter falling on the black hole was present in significant amounts. Astrophysicists immediately proposed that this material was invisible due to the large amount of dust between the host galaxy of HE0450-2958 and ours.

A cloud of gas collides with a jet of matter

If this hypothesis was correct, then in the observations infrared He should reveal it. astronomers David Elbazi And Knud Jahnke has tried to see things more clearly with his colleagues, literally, through an instrument of the Very Large Telescope. VLT) Of’SheCapable of observing in the mid-infrared range.

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as Knud Jahnke, member of Amy Noether-Group on the Co-evolution of Galaxies and Black Holes MPIA’s , by observing them wavelength We could detect the dust hiding the host galaxy. However, we could not find any. Instead, we found that an unrelated galaxy in the immediate vicinity of the quasar was producing stars at an alarming rate. ,

The rate of new star formation there is actually very high, about 350 Sun per year, a hundred times more than in typical galaxies of the local universe. In addition, a remarkable fact, as in the case of quasars 3c 321The galaxy, located just 22,000 light-years from HE0450-2958, has been hit hard by one of the quasar’s jets of matter.

By injecting energy into a large cloud of gas, this jet of matter could have led to the appearance of at least one new galaxy and certainly new stars. However, as David Elbaz points out, These two objects will inevitably merge in the future: quasar a. runs on Speed Only a few tens of thousands of kilometers per hour relative to the Milky Way. Although the quasar is still “naked”, it will eventually be “dressed up” when it merges with its star-rich galaxy. It will eventually reside inside a galaxy like all other quasars ,

This is enough to specify a model linking the evolution of galaxies and the evolution of supermassive black holes. Jets of matter from quasars may play an important role. But this almost unique case may not be enough. We would have to examine the universe more deeply to show that this example, without a rule, was very widespread in the universe during the first billion years of its existence. This should be one of the functions of the next generation of giant telescopes, such as alma ,Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array), E-ELT (European Giant Telescope) or Hubble’s successor, the James Webb Space Telescope.

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