France is the 20th country to sign the Artemis Agreement, a US program to monitor Moon exploration. All the details on this text.
France joins the program for future exploration of the Moon operated by the United States, signing this Tuesday “Artemis Accords”. Under the leadership of NASA, these rules were developed with the United States Department of State and the National Space Council. Its purpose is to frame the conquest of space by rules of good conduct and cooperation for countries wishing to participate with the United States in the exploration of other planets.
• Why the agreement on space exploration?
The aim of these agreements is to send humans to the Moon by 2024, that is, 55 years after Apollo 11. To do this, NASA seeks to avoid plundering resources (minerals or lunar water) by making a good driving not only to the Moon, but also to the Moon. On Mars and asteroids.
“It is necessary to establish a common set of principles to govern civilian exploration and use of outer space,” NASA explained on its site.
In 2020, the agency announced the creation of regulations aimed not only to regulate the extraction and use of resources, but also to protect “sites and artifacts of historical value”.
When announcing these agreements, NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine reaffirmed his desire to create a permanent presence not only on the Moon’s surface, but also on the Moon’s surface.
“The Artemis Agreement will outline a common vision of principles, based on the Outer Space Treaty of 1967, to create a safe and transparent environment that facilitates exploration, science and commercial activities that can benefit all humanity. “
The Artemis agreements also aim to build the Lunar Gateway, a station that will be assembled into lunar orbit from 2024. It will serve as a staging base for more distant manned flights.
• What are the terms of the agreement?
Through this international cooperation, Artemis aims to “strengthen not only space exploration, but also peaceful relations between nations” based on various treaties and conventions on outer space.
First, it imposes on the signatories a transparency By publicly outlining its policies and plans. second rule,interoperability System partner countries are committed to using open international standards to develop new standards.
Must be a member of this association Solidarity By lending assistance to each other when needed, especially in rescuing astronauts in distress. They will take “all reasonable measures” to rescue them and bring objects launched into outer space back to Earth.
Finally, the signatory countries will participate in registration of spatial data Required by the 1976 Convention. they should also make public their scientific data by informing the United Nations Secretary-General. they also have to to protect the environment Avoiding creating orbital debris and destroying anything they generate.
• Which are the signatory countries?
In two years, about twenty countries have signed the Artemis Agreement. Thus France has become the 20th country in this group. The other 19 are Australia, Bahrain, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Israel, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Mexico, New Zealand, Poland, South Korea, Romania, Singapore, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom and of course. United States of america.
• What other texts govern outer space?
, The Artemis agreements are in compliance with other regulations governing space. The most famous is the Space Treaty, signed in 1967 within the framework of the United Nations. It lays the legal foundation for space exploration. For example, it prohibits the placing of weapons of mass destruction in space, whether in Earth orbit or on the Moon. No country can make its own or suitable space resources such as a stellar resource.
, The Convention on the Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space governs states in the exploration and use of outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies. It contributes to the “realization of the objectives and principles of the United Nations Charter”.
In its Article 1, it recalls that missions “should be carried out in the good and interest of all nations, regardless of their stage of economic or scientific development; they are the prerogative of all humanity”.
, Since 2007, a text of the United Nations Committee for the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (CUPEEA) also regulates space debris. Countries should eliminate them and deal with obsolete satellites wandering in space. In 2021, debris damaged a robotic arm on the International Space Station (ISS). The object was part of a cloud created by Russia’s test firing of an anti-satellite missile. There will be millions of elements of all sizes specifically for satellites, but only 23,000 are tracked by various space agencies.
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