The 20,000 km deep “Valley of Fire” has carved the Sun

On April 3 and 4, 2022, the Sun has just ejected fibers. The first event is associated with the formation of a 20,000 km deep “valley of fire” on the star.

One ” valley of fire It opened on the surface of the Sun on Sunday, April 3, 2022, observed The phenomenon is associated with the ejection of plasma filaments and the ejection of a powerful solar wind, which will promote auroras on our planet in the coming days.

The boundary of the “valley” formed on the stars of the Solar System is estimated to be at least 20,000 kilometers deep and 10 times as long. In the following images, obtained by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO, a NASA satellite constantly observing the Sun), we can see the ejection and the formation of the valley – look to the center, slightly below the law.

Opening of “Valley of Fire”. //source: sdo

It can be difficult to imagine a depth of 20,000 kilometers. By comparison, the average Grand Canyon in the United States reaches…1.3 km. In fact, the size of the tear in the solar surface is so large that it would actually be equal to half the circumference of Earth, if we “opened” the planet – the circumference at the equator is just over 40,000 km.

The Met Office (National Meteorological Service in the United Kingdom) confirmed on its website that the two ” Filament Blowouts on the Sun, in its central part and slightly to the south. The first Filament was released on 3 April around 5 pm (Paris time) and the second on 4 April at 11 pm. , A minor/moderate G1/G2 geomagnetic storm likely on April 6, beginning with a coronal mass ejection on April 3, with a slight chance of a strong G3 storm. », service comment.

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The coronal mass ejections that accompany these eruptions are ” Types of magnetic clouds that spread through the interplanetary medium at speeds up to 2,000 km/s “, describes the Paris observatory. When a coronal mass ejection reaches Earth, it can cause a geomagnetic storm.

For further

Sun on 30 March 2022.  // Sources: NASA, Numerama Annotations

How intense are magnetic storms?

The Met Office correctly refers to a space weather scale established by the US Agency for Oceanic and Atmospheric Observations (NOAA) to describe the intensity of magnetic storms. We also speak of a magnetic storm or geomagnetic storm, which refers to a sudden fluctuation in the Earth’s magnetism, which occurs as a result of solar flares. Thus, magnetic storms are classified into 5 groups. The following table shows the different categories, in order of intensity, and the frequency of hurricanes each time – in a solar cycle whose duration is estimated at 11 years.

Ladder description potential impact frequency
G1 Minor Weak power grid fluctuations, minor impact on satellites, aurora at high latitudes. 1,700 per solar cycle
G2 liberal The risk of voltage problems for power systems at high altitudes, the need to correct the orientation of the satellites, the aurora at a latitude of 55 degrees. 600 per cycle
G3 strong Required voltage rectification on power systems, exposure to satellite components and their orientation, aurora at latitude 50 degrees. 200 per cycle
G4 Harsh Voltage control problems on power systems, potential loading problems on satellites, auroras at latitudes of 45 degrees. 100 per cycle
G5 extreme Power shortages, damaged transformers, satellite link problems, aurora at 40° latitudes. 4 per round

This scale helps to understand why the most powerful geomagnetic storms can disrupt links with satellites, even electrical networks on the ground in rare cases. These are also events that can produce spectacular spectacles of polar auroras at more or less latitudes.

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A coronal mass ejection on April 3 expected to reach Earth this Wednesday, April 6, a geomagnetic storm projected at the G1 or G2 level. As far as the April 4 evacuation is concerned, it may reach us on April 9, causing a minor storm G1.

all about the star of the solar system, the sun

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About the Author: Tad Fisher

Prone to fits of apathy. Music specialist. Extreme food enthusiast. Amateur problem solver.

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