Birth of a huge planet under Hubble’s deep eyes

Thousands of exoplanets have been identified by astronomers since October 1995 and the shocking announcement of the discovery of the first of them, 51 Pegasi b. But researchers are still unaware of the details of the growth process of giant planets. New images introduced by the Hubble Space Telescope may be game-changers.

“We don’t know much about the current development Giant planet»Researcher at University of Texas at Austin (United States), accepts Brendan Bowler NASA press release. “This planetary system gives us the first chance of falling material on a planet. “ This system, in which astronomers speak, that tleslesope spatial hubble . A system in which the size of a planet Jupiter Still in training. Feeding on matter Which surrounds its young host Star.

Misses more than that Discovered 4,000 exoplanets So far, only about fifteen have been directly imaged by researchers. Usually appear as simple points of light. But, 30 years after its launch, Researchers A new way of using Hubble has been found to obtain direct images of planets outside our solar system.

Astronomers Target PDS 70, A Dwarf star The orange is located at about 370 Light years Of the earth. Because she is known to hide two exoplanets Formed into a huge disk of dust and The gas Who surrounds it. The PDS 70B, seen by Hubble, is only five million years old. It is still in the process of settling the case.

An exoplanet that grows less rapidly today

Thanks for the comments in the field of Ultraviolet And careful cleaning of the light emitted by PDS 70, tleslesope spatial hubble Researchers offered unique images of radiation of hot gases falling on the giant planet. Guess what too Speed In which the latter grows. Astronomers claim that the exoplanet has already accumulated five times The mass Of Jupiter. But its rateRise together Happened. If it is today for another million years, it will grow to about one hundredth of Jupiter’s mass.

Even though the data indicates that the giant planet is at the end of its formation process, it is still instantaneous measurement. Researchers will actually need to know more about how this accretion rate is currently changing over time.

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According to astronomers, the exoplanet PDS70B is surrounded by a large pillar, which leaves a very large disk encircling its host star. Magnetic field lines that extend from their discs of gas and dust Atmosphere Transport substances on the surface of the planet. Researchers seem to have looked at Hubble images as particularly bright.

Casts out giant planets in the Alma Formation

Thanks to the Alma Observatory in Chile, astronomers have found that within discs of gas and dust around four young stars, indisputable evidence of Jupiter’s recent formation with several massive planets. Measurements made on the gas that surrounds them have also made it possible to better define their properties.

Paragraph fromThat Published on 06/01/2017

Many planets orbit each star or nearly. However, the terms of their training are still partially misunderstood today. To lift this veil of mystery, astronomers studied Gas and dust discsWhere the young stars roam around Planets are forming. Then the power ofAlma , Atacama, Chile’s large (sub-) millimeter network enabled them to overcome the smallness of these disks as well as their distance from Earth.

Transient discs are a special type characterized by the absence of dust at their center, where the host star is located. This zero will be one of the following scenarios: either powerful Vents Stellar as well as an intense radiation swept away or destroyed the case (a process known as photovapulation), that is to say the case was expelled Young massive planets in formation As they roamed around their star.

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Incomparable sensitivity ofAlmaAnd the sharpness of recently obtained images enabled a team led by Nienke van der Merle of the Leiden Observatory in the Netherlands to map, to an unprecedented degree accurate, the distribution of gas and dust within four transient disintegrations SR21 . HD 135344B (or SAO 206462), DoAr 44 and Oph IRS 48. Results obtained, published in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Enabling them to focus on one of the two zodiacs considered.

Dust holes and gas cavities

Newly acquired images show the existence of (mainly) significant amounts of gasHydrogen ) Within the dust hole. To the researchers’ surprise, it appeared that the gas also has a central cavity, which is up to three times smaller than the dust hole.

For him, this observation finds a single and unique interpretation: the newly formed massive planets cleaned the gas as they described their orbits around the central star and trapped dust particles at the periphery (see also on this topic ) Off-IRS 48 and its planet-producing vortex according to Pierre Barge »).

Thanks to Alma, astronomers discovered notable differences between gas cavities and dust holes in the discs surrounding four young stars. From these new observations there is indisputable evidence of the recent formation of planets with many Jovian masses within these disks. © Alma, Esso, NAOJ, NRAO, m. Kornmasser

“Previous observations had already suggested the presence of gas within the dust holes, Indique Nienneke van der Maerl. Being able to map the entire disk with Alma to A Resolution Much more than any other tool, we are able to exclude other scenarios considered so far. Such a deep cavity clearly argues in favor of the existence of planets with mass masses of several times the order of Jupiter and arising from the scanning of their disks. “

It is interesting to note that these observations were made while the antenna array was still ConstructionOn the Chajnantor Plateau in Chile. He was endowed with only 10% of his current resolving power.

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A universal system?

New studies, which apply to other transient disks, may make it possible to establish the universality of this landscape of planetary clearing. By then, Alma’s observations would have given astronomers invaluable insights into the complex process Planetary formation .

“All transient discs have been studied and those that present large dust holes are also characterized by gas cavities. Thanks to Alma, we can now determine the location and time of formation of these massive planets within these disks, and then compare the results obtained with the model of planetary formation., Says Evin van Dishok of Leiden University at The Netherlands and Max Institute Planck Dedicated to BodyOverseas, in Garching, Germany. Direct planetary detection is within reach of current equipment and the next generation of telescopes currently under construction such asE ELTThe giant European telescope will allow us to push these boundaries backward. Alma allows you to target future comments. “

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