Biography | Ernest Rutherford – Physicist and Chemist

Ernest Rutherford was one Physicist And the New Zealand chemist, who, in the course of his researchUranium, Discoveredprogram Alpha rays and Beta. This discovery made a major contribution to modern atomic theory.

The results of his research took the form of a modern nuclear model. Rutherford was the first to defend the view that Atoms Their positive charge is concentrated in a small nucleus.

Ernest Rutherford’s Youth and Studies

Ernest Rutherford was born on August 30, 1871 in Nelson, New Zealand. He grew up and studied in his hometown. In 1893, he graduated in Mathematics and Body By the University of Wellington. Thanks to a competition, he won a scholarship that took him to Cambridge University in England.

At the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge under the direction of physicist JJ Thomson (who discovered it) Electrons), He researches protest Electrically charged atomic particles: Anion. It also studies the radiation emitted by the element. Radium, Recently discovered by mary and by Pierre Curie.

In 1898, he left for Canada. In 179, while researching uranium at McGill University in Montreal, he found that one type of radiation emitted by this element was easily blocked by a thin sheet. Metal. They call this particle alpha rays. He also discovers another form of radiation, more penetrating, and blocked by a thick sheet of metal, which he named Beta rays.

Search radioactivity

Rutherford’s discovery was important for future work. With the English chemist Frederick Soddy, he laid the foundations of the theory of Radioactivity. His research and findings can be found in the book “Radiating Substances and Their Radiation”.

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In 1907, Rutherford moved to Manchester, England. Around this time, they found that alpha rays flow inAtoms D ‘Helium Are positively connected, that is, atoms without their electrons. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for this discovery chemistry In 1908. From 1910, he conducted many experiments.

Nuclear theory research

With his experiments, Ernest Rutherford inspired all modern atomic theory by claiming that the atom is the nucleus and that its positive part is centered in a Volume Extremely small: core only. Electrons will be extranuclear.

Based on these discoveries, Rutherford presented an atomic model in 1911, which his colleagues recognized and named it “Rutherford’s atom”. The model has a planetary shape where the atom is surrounded by an electrosphere.

In 1912, Danish physicist Neil Bohr used Rutherford’s findings to apply quantum theory, which solved the deadlock in Rutherford’s model.

Piotr Kapitza. with

In 1919, back in Cambridge, he became the director of the Cavendish Laboratory. Between 1921 and 1937 he worked with Piotr Kapitja, one of his greatest allies and one of the most important names in the USSR. He is one of the people responsible for launching the satellite in particular artificial satellite. Rutherford once again demonstrated his faith in the internationalization of science by moving his large laboratory high tension From England to the Soviet Union, where Kapitja can use it to pursue research.

Ernest Rutherford was the President of the Royal Society from 1925 to 1930. He received several honors, including the Order of Merit in 1935, the title of Baron Rutherford of Nelson in 1931, and the title of Lord in 1937.

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Ernest Rutherford died on October 19, 1937 in Cambridge, England.

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