Additions to black holes can emit double chips, giving us clues about their shape.

Additions to black holes can emit double chips, giving us clues about their shape.
Enlarge / Illustration of the artist in a blackhole attachment. New simulations suggest that collisions with black holes should result in not one, but multiple totlet “chips” being thrown, when the collision is observed from the “equator” of the final black hole.

N. Fisher, H. Pfeiffer, a. Buananno, SXS Collaboration

Physicists seek to merge black holes and other similar cosmic phenomena by detecting gravitational waves, from which they can gather valuable information, such as the mass of both previous black holes and, ultimately, the larger black holes that result from merging. In a new study published in the journal Nature Communications Physics, a team of scientists found evidence from supercomputer computer simulations that those waves could encode the size of black holes merging as soon as they were finally fixed.

General relativity predicts that two merged black holes will block strong gravitational waves. Space spacetime fabrics become so faint that they are very difficult to detect. The waveforms of these signals rotate towards each other in two black holes and merge in the event of a massive collision, acting as an audio fingerprint to transmit powerful shock waves across spacetime. Physicists look for a toilet “chip” pattern in the data as the two black holes collide. The newly affected blackhole vibrates from the force of that effect and these vibrations are called “ringdowns” because it is like the sound of a bell hitting it also creates gravitational waves. Furthermore, gravitational-wave signals have multiple frequencies, dubbed “overtones”, which decrease with each block at different rates (decay) to match the vibrations of the new black hole.

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The LGO laser detects these gravitational waves using interferometry, using small high-powered lasers to measure small changes in distance between two objects located kilometers away. (LIGO has detectors in Hanford, Washington, and Louisiana, where Italy’s third detector, Advanced VIRGO, came online in 2016.) For the first time.

Since then, LIGO has been upgraded and run two more runs, starting the third run on April 1, 2019. Within a month, the collaboration identified five more gravitational wave events: three by merging black holes, one into neutron star integration. , And the other could be the first example of a neutron star / blackhole attachment.

Most recently, the collaboration in June 2020 announced the identification of the designated S190521g binary black hole integration on May 21, 2019. And just last month, in collaboration with Lego / VIRGO, it was announced that it had detected gravitational wave signals from another blackhole addition. It was the largest and most distant attachment that was still detected in collaboration and made it the most powerful signal ever detected. It appeared to be more of a “bang” than a normal “chip” in the data. The detection also marked the first direct observation of a mid-mass black hole.

According to Christopher Evans, a graduate student at Georgia Tech and co-author of this latest paper, he and his colleagues conducted a supercomputer computer simulation of the collision of black holes and then compared the gravitational waves emitted by the remaining black holes to its rapidly changing shape. It has been observed that ideal gravity-wave observations usually study the margarine from the top of the black hole of the residue. When the team looked at the event from the perspective of the rest of the equator, simulations showed that gravitational wave signals were “much richer and more complex than previously thought,” Evans said.

Juan Caldaren Bustillo, co-author of the Galician Institute, said, “When we observed black holes from their equatorial region, we found that the final black hole emits a more complex signal, which rises several times before it dies.” Juan Caldaren Bustillo says for high energy physics at Santiago de Compostela in Spain. “In other words, black holes actually chip several times.”

And the more complex signal seems to encode information about what shape the final residual blackhole will take. “When the two original,‘ parent ’black holes are of different sizes, the final black hole looks like a chest at first, with one dipped on one side and wide on the other,” Bustillo said. “It appears that the black hole emits more intense gravitational waves through its most curved regions, which surround its quadrangular region. This is because the residual black hole is also rotating and producing multiple chips pointing repeatedly at its observer and back.”

The authors conclude that the existing sensitivity of LIGO / VIRGO identifiers to their data should be sufficient to monitor the signature of this post-integration post.

DOI: Communication Physics, 2020. 10.1038 / s42005-020-00446-7 (About DOI).

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